Haplogroup J (Y-DNA)

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Haplogroup J
Distribution Haplogroup J Y-DNA.svg
Possible time of origin50,000-30,000 years ago
Possible place of originNear EastArabian Peninsula
Defining mutations12f2.1, M304, P209, S6, S34, S35
In human geneticsHaplogroup J (previously known as HG9 or Eu9/Eu10) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is defined by the 12f2.1 genetic marker, or the equivalent M304 marker. It evolved in the Arabian Peninsula and was then carried into North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia.




Haplogroup J is believed to have arisen roughly 30,000 years ago in Southwest Asia (Arabia Felix) (31,700±12,800 years ago according to Semino et al.. 2004). It is most closely related to Haplogroup I, as both Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J have mutations in common deriving from Haplogroup IJ (S2, S22). Haplogroup IJ and haplogroup K derive from Haplogroup IJK(L15/S137, L16/S138), and only at this level of classification does haplogroup IJK join with Haplogroup G and Haplogroup H as immediate descendants of Haplogroup F. The main current subgroups J1 and J2, which now comprise between them almost all of the population of the haplogroup, are both believed to have arisen very early, at least 10,000 years ago.
Haplogroup J is found in greatest concentration in Southwestern Arabian Peninsula. Outside of this region, haplogroup J has a presence in North Africa. It also has a moderate presence in Southern Europe (especially in central and southern Italy, Malta, Greece, and Albania), Central Asia, and South Asia, particularly in the form of its subclade J2 (J-M172). Haplogroup J is also found in the Horn of Africa, particularly in the form of its subclade J1 (J-M267). Subclades J2a and J2a1b1 are found mostly in Greece, Anatolia, and southern Italy. In Northern India, 28.7% of the Shia Muslim population belongs to haplogroup J. [1]

Craig's Y Chromosome J Geographic Distribution - Semetic
(Must have immigrated into Switzerland and then the US)

Mazal Tov  (Good Luck has occurred)

Etymology and pronunciation

While the words mazal (or mazel in Yiddish; "luck" or "fortune") and tov ("good") are Hebrew in origin, the phrase is of Yiddish origin, and was later incorporated into Modern Hebrew. The phrase is recorded as entering into English from Yiddish in 1862 as "mazel tov".[1][2]
The main difference in pronunciation is that, like many words, in Hebrew the emphasis is on the second syllable, whereas in Yiddish it is on the first one. In addition it is mazal in Hebrew and mazel in Yiddish.
The expression comes from the Mishnaic Hebrew mazzāl, meaning "constellation" or "destiny." This in turn is thought to have derived from theAkkadian language manzaltu, mazzaztum.[2]


Although mazel tov literally translates to "good luck", the phrase is not used in the way that the expression "good luck" is used in English (typically as "I wish you good luck"). It rather means "good luck has occurred" or "your fortune has been good" and is an acknowledgement of this. The phrase "mazel tov!" parallels the use of the phrase "congratulations!" and conveys roughly that "I am pleased this good thing has happened to you!".