Executive Summary

Executive Summary

This blog tracks the DNA information for the Hullinger / Hollinger / Holliger / Holiger clan. As we find new information we will add it to the blog while keeping this summary updated.

Our oldest know paternal ancestor is Henri Holiger of Boniswyl, Aargau, Switzerland, born in 1425. We have visited this lovely area and found relatives. The community is very attractive with a small castle located at the foot of a lake. A fast flowing stream forms a moat around the castle.

Our paternal Swiss ancestors immigrated to the United States in 1736 and settled in Pennsylvania. Their descendants gradually moved west with the frontier. Our branch of the family homesteaded in Vivian, South Dakota in the early 1900's.

We conducted genetic testing to learn about our ancient history. Craig Hullinger was tested for the "Y" chromosome which is passed from father to son with very little change. Clif Hullinger was tested for mtDNA, which is passed from mother to child.  The results of Clif Hullinger's test is at harlandna.blogspot.com

Our Male "Y" Haplogroup is J2A4H2. This is not a widespread Haplogroup in Switzerland. It originated in the middle east.The maps below show the origination and migration path of men with the "J" Haplogroup.  j2a4h2.blogspot.com

"Y-DNA haplogroup J2 lineages originated in the area known as the Fertile Crescent. The main spread of J2 into the Mediterranean area is thought to have coincided with the expansion of agricultural peoples during the Neolithic period. "

"J2 is related to the Ancient Etruscans, (Minoan) Greeks, southern Anatolians, Phoenicians, Assyrians and Babylonians. In Europe, J2 reaches its highest frequency in Greece (especially in Crete, Peloponese and Thrace), southern and central Italy, southern France, and southern Spain. The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were the main driving forces behind the spread J2 around the western and southern Mediterranean."

So our Swiss ancestor came from the middle east.  Other Hollinger and Hullinger's have also conducted testing. As more people conduct tests we will learn more. 

The test showed that our Swiss Hullinger genealogy was accurate. Our "Y" chromosome is closely related to other Hullinger / Hollinger men who who also took the DNA test. The table below shows twelve men with the Hollinger name who took the DNA test.

Eight are closely related (My test is the one indicating Henri Holiger). Four of the eight list their ancestral country of origin as Switzerland, with two unknown and one each from Austria and Germany.  The other eight men are not closely related to us and perhaps acquired their last name through adoption or developed independently in a different locale, or they are related to Hollinger on the female line.  

It thus seems likely that our ancestor immigrated into Switzerland and then acquired our last name. Our Hollinger (Hullinger) Name, according to Genealogy Family Education.  http://genealogy.familyeducation.com/

South German and Jewish (Ashkenazic): habitational name for someone from places called Holling or Hollingen. 

The test also shows the number of Swiss matches against the total number of Swiss and European "Y" Haplogroups tested. This result is quite low - only 2 Swiss cousins out of 1,618 Swiss tested. It is also rare in the rest of northern Europe.This indicates that our J2 haplogroup is a fairly recent and rare haplogroup in northern Europe.

Other DNA tests listed later in this blog show the total number of men who tested J2A4H2.  Many of them are from the middle east.

We also found another interesting item.  There were a large number of European Jews named Hollinger who were killed in the Holocaust.  We don't know the connection. The Jewish Hollingers could have acquired their name independently of ours or they could be closely related. We will eventually find out - there are a number of Hollingers in Israel. As they get tested for their Y chromosome we will find out if we are closely related.  If so our paternal ancestor was most likely Jewish. If not then the Roman soldier or slave solution becomes more likely.

Genetic testing is relatively new. We will likely find out much more about our ancient history as more people get tested and as we learn more about genetics.

Our Paternal Line of Descent

Hullinger / Hollinger / Holliger / Holiger

Born Died First Last Name Spouse Birth Place / Comments

1425 1504 Henri Holiger Boniswyl, Aargu, SWZ

1446 Heini Holiger Boniswil (Holvil) Switzerland

1472 Hans Holiger 1504 Junghans Holiger
m Margaretha Rebmeyer

1548 1600 Heini Holiger m Barbara Mayer Boniswyl,Aargu, SWZ Burial: Seengen

1591 1643 Heini Holiger m Anna Huber
Aargu, Boniswyl, SWZ

1627 1689 Rudolph Holliger m Anna Hummel

1661 Jacob Holliger m Elisabeth Burger

1701 1779 Hans Jacob Hollinger m Anna Elisabetha Esterli
Immigrated to US 1736

1734 1802 Christian Hollinger m Eva Dorothea Feltz
Born Germany, Captain American Revolution

1757 1839 Daniel Hullinger m Ann Schockey
Lancaster Co, PA, 1st Lt American Revolution

1788 1856 Daniel Jnr Hullinger m Comfort Conway Staunton Trenton, OH

1833 1909 Daniel J Hullinger m Mary Kirk Ohio emigrated from Ohio to south central Iowa by wagon train in 1864

1870 1956 Eli Hullinger m Mary Elizabeth Siddons Leon IA

1893 1970 John Franklin Hullinger m Pearl Josephine Harlan
Leon, Iowa US Army, WW I

1920 Clifford Harlan Hullinger m Louise Liffengren
Vivian, SD 1st Lieutenant, US Army, WW II

1947 Craig Harlan Hullinger m Elizabeth S. Ruyle
Brookings, SD Colonel, US Marine Corps Reserve, Vietnam

1980 Bret Schaller Hullinger Harvey, IL

There is a lot of additional information in this blog and on the


DNA Reports, Clif and Craig Hullinger

DNA Report on Clif Hullinger

This report was prepared by 23 and Me.  www.23andme.com.
It shows the genetic heritage of Clif.  The Native American heritage comports with our paper genealogy. Clif's maternal gggreatgrandmother was Ianahanna Poe, who was part of full Native American. 23 and Me estimates Clif's Native American ancestor to be born between 1770 and 1650, which includes Ianhanna Poe and four of her ancestors.

GenerationYearAncestorPercent23andMe Projected Native Ancestor
101650UnknownEstimated range for our 100% Native Ancestor
91680Unknown" "
81710Unknown" "
71740Unknown" "
61770Hannah (Ianhanna) Poe 1780-1871" "
51800Rebecca Morgan Hart 1816-1891
41830Missouri America Hart 1841-1925
31860Minnie Jane Lockridge 1869-1968
21890Pearl Harlan Hullinger 1895-1993
11920Clif Harlan Hullinger 1920-0.3%Actual percent Native American

The Oceanic heritage was a surprise.  Don't know how that came about. 

DNA Report on Craig Hullinger

This is the DNA report on Craig Hullinger from 23 and Me. You can compare my DNA to my father Clif's DNA. My mother was Norwegian, and I therefore have a higher percent of Scandinavian heritage, and a lower percent of German and British. I received all of his Native American DNA, but not the Ashkenazi Jewish and Oceanic heritage.

Phylogenetic Tree of J2

Two main subclades divide haplogroup J2: J2a (M410, L152, L212/PF4988, L559/PF4986) and J2b (M12, M102, M221, M314).
  • J2a1-M47 is found at low frequency (1-5%) in Anatolia, Georgia, Iran, Iraq and Gulf states.
  • J2a1-M67 is the most common subclade in the Caucasus (Vainakhs, Ingushs, Chechens, Georgians, Ossetians, Balkars) and in the Levant (Lebanese, Jews). It is also common in western India, the Arabian Peninsula, Anatolia (esp. north-west), Greece (esp. Crete), Italy (esp. Marche and Abruzzo) and Iberia. M67 was probably a major Neolithic lineage expanding from the Fertile Crescent to Greece to the west and the Indus valley to the east.
  • J2a1-M68 a minor subclade found in Iraq and India.
  • J2a1-M319 has been found chiefly in Greece (esp. in Crete) and Italy, and at low frequencies around Western Europe (perhaps diffused by the Romans).
  • J2a1-M339 is a very minor Anatolian subclade.
  • J2a1-M419 is a minor subclade detected in northern Iran.
  • J2a1-P81 is a very minor Anatolian subclade.
  • J2a1-L24 is the most widespread subclade of J2a, with a distribution ranging from the Middle East to Europe, North Africa and South Asia.
    • J2a1-M158 has been found in Anatolia, Iberia, Pakistan and India.
    • J2a1-L84 is a minor subclade detected in the Balkans.
    • J2a1-L25 is the main branch of L24 and is subdivided in many subclades.
      • J2a1-F3133 is found in Anatolia, Syria, Iran, Central Asia and Saudi Arabia.
        • J2a1-F761 is the Western European subclade of F3133, found in Italy, France, the Benelux and England.
        • J2a1-L192.2 is found in Anatolia, Iran and Kerala (India). It has also been found in Tunisia (M'saken).
      • J2a1-PF4888 is found in the Middle East and among Ashkenazi Jews (F659 subclade: Katz and Cohen).
      • J2a1-Z387 and its main subclade L70 (DYS445≤7) are found throughout continental Europe as well as in the Middle East at lower frequency.
  • J2a1-PF5169 is a rare subclade that has been found in Saudi Arabia, Switzerland, southern Germany and England.
  • J2a2-PF7381 is found at low frequency in southern and Eastern Europe and in the Caucasus.
  • J2b1-M205 is found mostly in the southern Balkans and Anatolia.
  • J2b2-M241 is found mostly in south-east, central and Eastern Europe and in India.
The test below is of Craig Harlan Hullinger. Click the link below to go to a recent test on Clifford Harlan Hullmaternal MTDNA will be the same for all of those in the female line from Pearl Harlan Hullinger.


New DNA Test

I had another DNA test done in July 2013.  Some more interesting information about our ancient heritage. I always suspected Clifford Hullinger was part Neanderthal - now we know.


My general DNA information below is of course a 50 / 50 mix of Louise Liffengren Hullinger and Clifford Hullinger, so your DNA will be somewhat different.  Still, it give someone who is a Hullinger a little insight into their DNA.  They find that my DNA is most like a Finn - who knew?  Don't tell our Norwegian relatives. Of course we can blame some of this on the Hullinger side.  And since I am part Neanderthal, you likely are also.



We are all more than the sum of our parts, but the results below offer some of the most dramatic and fascinating information in your Geno 2.0 test. In this section, we display your affiliations with a set of nine world regions. This information is determined from your entire genome so we’re able to see both parents’ information, going back six generations. Your percentages reflect both recent influences and ancient genetic patterns in your DNA due to migrations as groups from different regions mixed over thousands of years. Your ancestors also mixed with ancient, now extinct hominid cousins like Neanderthals in Europe and the Middle East or the Denisovans in Asia. If you have a very mixed background, the pattern can get complicated quickly! Use the reference population matches below to help understand your particular result.  VIEW THE "WHO AM I" VIDEO





This component of your ancestry is found at highest frequency in northern European populations—people from the UK, Denmark, Finland, Russia and Germany in our reference populations. While not limited to these groups, it is found at lower frequencies throughout the rest of Europe. This component is likely the signal of the earliest hunter-gatherer inhabitants of Europe, who were the last to make the transition to agriculture as it moved in from the Middle East during the Neolithic period around 8,000 years ago.
Note: In some cases regional percentages may not total 100%.


Modern day indigenous populations around the world carry particular blends of these regions. We compared your DNA results to the reference populations we currently have in our database and estimated which of these were most similar to you in terms of the genetic markers you carry. This doesn’t necessarily mean that you belong to these groups or are directly from these regions, but that these groups were a similar genetic match and can be used as a guide to help determine why you have a certain result. Remember, this is a mixture of both recent (past six generations) and ancient patterns established over thousands of years, so you may see surprising regional percentages. Read each of the population descriptions below to better interpret your particular result.


This reference population is based on samples collected from people native to Finland. The dominant 57% Northern European component likely reflects the earliest settlers in Europe, hunter-gatherers who arrived there more than 35,000 years ago. The 17% Mediterranean and 17% Southwest Asian percentages arrived later, with the spread of agriculture from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, over the past 10,000 years. As these early farmers moved into Europe, they spread their genetic patterns as well. Today, northern European populations retain the links to both earliest Europeans and these later migrants from the Middle East. The 7% Northeast Asian component reflects mixing with native Siberian populations, particularly the reindeer-herding Saami people of far northern Scandinavia.











  • 44%


  • 34%


  • 20%



This reference population is based on samples collected from the native population of Greece. The 54% Mediterranean and 17% Southwest Asian percentages reflect the strong influence of agriculturalists from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, who arrived here more than 8,000 years ago. The 28% Northern European component likely comes from the pre-agricultural population of Europe—the earliest settlers, who arrived more than 35,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic period. Today, this component predominates in northern European populations, while the Mediterranean component is more common in southern Europe.









  • 44%


  • 34%


  • 20%



Y Chromosome Information - passed from father to son. It is not clear how our ancestors got to Switzerland, although with more people getting the test and more research a detailed path may yet be found.




Today, the distribution and frequency of this lineage’s members echoes the origins of their ancestor. It is 10 to 11 percent of the male population of Tunisia. It is about 5 percent of modern Macedonian male lineages. It is 4 to 5 percent of the male population of Cyprus. It is 1 to 2 percent of male lineages in Switzerland. Geneticists have found this lineage at trace frequencies of less than 1 percent through most of Western and Central Europe.
Note: This branch is not accompanied by a major movement on the map, and research on this branch is continuing.

The map below shows the path and cocentrations of our male ancestors and their descendants.


Craig Hullinger recently had a DNA test done with National Geographic. The graphic above shows that I am 1.8% Neanderthal - I always suspected it. His mother Louise Liffengren Hullinger is convinced that the Neanderthal could not have come from the Liffengren side of our family - it must be from the Hullingers.

My MtDNA Haplogroup - the DNA passed from mother to child - is H13ala.  All the women descended from Barbo Tronrud and their descendants and all of their maternal ancestors share this MtDNA Haplogroup.

The H MtDNA is the dominant Haplogroup in Europe. About 1/2 of European women are of this group.

The H13ala is a subgroup of H and is far more rare. About 3% of the maternal lineages in Norway are this Haplogroup. The map below shows the path that our maternal ancestors took when leaving from Africa and migrating to Europe.


AGE: 17,500 ± 4,200 YEARS AGO


Groups containing this lineage lived in the harsh climate of the Caucasus. From there, some have migrated to Europe and West Asia.
Today, this line is present at low frequency in both Asia and Europe, but its highest population frequency and diversity is present in the Caucasus. There, it is prominent in Dagestan (15 percent) and in Georgia (13.3 percent).
In West Asia, it is over 18 percent of some population groups in Iraq and about 13 percent of the population in United Arab Emirates.
In Europe, it is 3 to 4 percent of maternal lineages in Italy, 3 percent of maternal lineages in Norway, and about 2 percent of maternal lineages in Turkey.
Note: This branch is not accompanied by a major movement on the map, and research on this branch is continuing.